The framing effect in bonobos, chimpanzees and capuchin monkeys.
Noam Chimpsky had had a long day playing with the other chimpanzees. Noam was starting to feel hungry so headed towards the eating area of his enclosure. He had previously stored some fruit on a branch of a large tree. On the way to collect his fruit Noam noticed that one of the other chimpanzees had a new fruit that he had never seen before. Noam was determined to try some of the new fruit. He collected some of his fruit from his stash of fruit and went towards the other chimpanzee who was still carrying the new fruit. Noam wanted to trade some of his fruit for the new fruit. He stopped in front of the other chimpanzee, placed his fruit on the ground and tried to trade. The chimpanzee with the new fruit was happy to trade but wanted more fruit then Noam was willing to give. Noam decided that trading was a bad idea if he had give away too much fruit so he went off to his tree, with his fruit in hand and settled down to eat – afterall, Noam could try some of the new fruit another day.
Noam’s choice was to trade a small amount of food for the new fruit or to trade a lot of his fruit for the new fruit. In the end, Noam decided that the new fruit was not worth a lot of his fruit. Like humans Noam is susceptible to the framing effect. For Noam, his dilemma was to accept a negatively framed trade were he would lose out by giving away too much of his fruit or to broker a positively framed trade were he would give away a small amount of fruit for the new fruit.
The framing effect states that the manner in which options are presented (or framed) can influence how we evaluate choices. We evaluate the options relative to a reference point (i.e., the amount of fruit the Noam had to start with). Changes that seem to worsen the status quo (i.e., Noam giving away a lot fruit for the new fruit) are treated differently to changes that improve the status quo (i.e., Noam gaining the new fruit after trading for a small amount of fruit). The way in which we (and Noam) perceive the choice is important because we are more willing to invest in a choice that is positively framed, rather than negatively framed. The framing effect has been documented extensively in human decision-making in areas such as financial trading (Seo et al., 2010) and medical decision-making (Bornstein et a., 2001). However, as we have seen in the case of Noam other animals, other than humans also exhibit the framing effect. According to molecular-clock estimates our genus split with other primates around 23 million years ago (Schneider et al., 2001), which means that we share a common ancestor with other primates. We share some of our decision-making processes (e.g., the framing effect) with the other animals.
One study the sought to investigate the framing effect in other primates used 40 bonobos (Pan paniscus) and chimpanzees (Pan trogladytes) (Krupenye et al., 2015). The apes were required to make choices between a positively framed option that provided a preferred food item (fruit) and a negatively framed option with a different food item (peanuts). The apes completed 5 sessions of 12 trials on separate days. Both the bonobos and the chimpanzees choose the positively framed option more than the negatively framed option demonstrating that they were susceptible to the framing effect. Furthermore, male apes were more susceptible then female apes to the framing effect.
Capuchin monkeys (Cebus appella) have also shown the framing effect in several different studies (Chen et al., 2017; Lakshminarayanan et al., 2011). In their natural environments capuchins live in complex environments, they are socially sophisticated primates whose native environment requires careful management of their scarce resources. The study by Lakshminarayanan et al., (2011) found that capuchins are able to learn how to trade tokens for food. When trading tokens they are susceptible to framing effect for positively and negatively framed choices.
The results of the capuchin, bonobo and chimpanzee studies suggest that the mechanisms that drive the framing effect is evolutionarily ancient. Some of our ‘human’ economic biases are shared by Noam and the other primates throughout the primate order. These studies highlight the importance of comparative research in understanding the origins of cognitive biases and individual differences in human decision-making. To understand the human brain and decision-making we should complement of research by looking towards our distant relatives.