The home advantage bias and attribution bias during football refereeing in the German Bundesliga and the English Premier League.

The home advantage bias and attribution bias during football refereeing in the German Bundesliga and the English Premier League.

Andrew had always dreamt of a career in professional sports, unlike most people that want to work in sports he wasn’t interested in the fame and money. Andrew had spent the last 10 years working up to where he is. He had refereed for many small clubs and matches in the lower leagues. Now Andrew had been selected to referee for the top leagues. During his first big match Andrew was the top referee, he found himself in a stadium with 60,000 cheering and yelling fans. One of the star strikers went down after being tackled, he was holding is leg in pain. Andrew had a decision to make, was this a foul? He felt the pressure as the crowds began to yell. His decision would influence the outcome of the whole match.

Referees, judges and umpires all have an important role to play when it comes to sporting events. In a lot of sports the decisions of these officials can have a big impact on the position of a team in the league tables. The position of a team in the league table can furthermore affect the finances of a team, it’s investors and in some cases, it’s supporters.

One well known phenomena in sporting events is the home team advantage (Garicano et al., 2005; Rickman and Witt, 2008). The home team advantage phenomena states that a team playing in their home stadium will have an advantage over the opposing team simply because they are in their home stadium. The home team advantage has been shown in almost all sports. In football, researchers have investigated the home team advantage in the Italian Serie A league (Scoppa, 2008), the US leagues (Garicano et al., 2005), German Bundesliga (Kocher et al., 2004) and the English Premier League (Rickman and Witt, 2008). The decisions that referees make play a major role in the home team advantage.

i.png

In 2007 Perrersson-Lidbom and colleagues at the Universities of Stockholm and Munich had an opportunity to study the home team advantage in 24 matches after a serious of problems in the Italian Serie A and Serie B leagues. On February the 2nd 2007 supporters of the Italian football clubs Calcio Catania and Palermo Calcio clashed with each other and police in a violent and serious act of hooliganism. Filippo Raciti, a police officer in Catonia was killed during the rioting and around a hundred people were injured. Following the rioting police forced some of the clubs to play their home games without spectators. The researchers found that the presence of the supporters had an influence on the decisions of referees. When matches were played in front of spectators referees would punish away team players more harshly and home team players more lightly for the same offences (e.g., fouls). The home team advantage disappeared when there were no spectators. This reveals that although referees are expected to be unbiased factors such as cheering spectators can influence their decisions.

Another study of the home team advantage phenomena was conducted at the California Polytechnic State University by Richard Pollard in 2002. Between 1987 and 2001 there was a building boom for new sporting stadiums in United States. Pollard gathered data from 37 teams as they moved to new stadiums. If the home team advantage was in part to do with the stadium itself then the advantage should temporarily disappear when teams move stadium. Pollard found that 24% of the advantage of playing at a team’s home stadium is lost in the months after moving stadium. A large bit of the home team advantage remains which may be in part due to the referee’s decision-making.

2.png

One influence on a referee’s decision-making that many readers may find surprising are seemingly unimportant perceptual cues such at the height of a footballer (Quaquebeke and Giessner, 2010). Perceptual cues such as height can influence a referee’s decisions through a cognitive bias called the attribution bias. The attribution bias states that an attribute that does not implicitly seem important to the referee can influence a decision, when prompted the referee would not acknowledge that the attribute was an important factor in their decision. Quaquebeke and Giessner (2010) investigated what factors can influence the decision of a referee to punish a foul. They found that since height can sometimes be associated with the concepts of strength and aggression height can have an influence on decision-making. When an ambiguous tackle is seen by a referee the referee is more likely to attribute the wrongdoing to the taller of two players. Field data of decision-making by referees in seven UEFA Champion Leagues, three FIFA World Cups and the German Bundesliga league all support the attribution bias in refereeing.

So, although many of us are unlikely to find ourselves in the position of Andrew presiding over important decisions in a football match it is important to remember that we cannot always be unbiased in our decision-making. When Andrew finds himself deciding which of two players were in the wrong when going into a tackle he should bear-in-mind that factors that he is not aware of (e.g., height and crowd noise) play a role in his decision-making.

Advertisements

The framing effect in bonobos, chimpanzees and capuchin monkeys.

The framing effect in bonobos, chimpanzees and capuchin monkeys.

Noam Chimpsky had had a long day playing with the other chimpanzees. Noam was starting to feel hungry so headed towards the eating area of his enclosure. He had previously stored some fruit on a branch of a large tree. On the way to collect his fruit Noam noticed that one of the other chimpanzees had a new fruit that he had never seen before. Noam was determined to try some of the new fruit. He collected some of his fruit from his stash of fruit and went towards the other chimpanzee who was still carrying the new fruit. Noam wanted to trade some of his fruit for the new fruit. He stopped in front of the other chimpanzee, placed his fruit on the ground and tried to trade. The chimpanzee with the new fruit was happy to trade but wanted more fruit then Noam was willing to give. Noam decided that trading was a bad idea if he had give away too much fruit so he went off to his tree, with his fruit in hand and settled down to eat – afterall, Noam could try some of the new fruit another day.

Noam’s choice was to trade a small amount of food for the new fruit or to trade a lot of his fruit for the new fruit. In the end, Noam decided that the new fruit was not worth a lot of his fruit. Like humans Noam is susceptible to the framing effect. For Noam, his dilemma was to accept a negatively framed trade were he would lose out by giving away too much of his fruit or to broker a positively framed trade were he would give away a small amount of fruit for the new fruit.

1.png

The framing effect states that the manner in which options are presented (or framed) can influence how we evaluate choices. We evaluate the options relative to a reference point (i.e., the amount of fruit the Noam had to start with). Changes that seem to worsen the status quo (i.e., Noam giving away a lot fruit for the new fruit) are treated differently to changes that improve the status quo (i.e., Noam gaining the new fruit after trading for a small amount of fruit). The way in which we (and Noam) perceive the choice is important because we are more willing to invest in a choice that is positively framed, rather than negatively framed. The framing effect has been documented extensively in human decision-making in areas such as financial trading (Seo et al., 2010) and medical decision-making (Bornstein et a., 2001). However, as we have seen in the case of Noam other animals, other than humans also exhibit the framing effect. According to molecular-clock estimates our genus split with other primates around 23 million years ago (Schneider et al., 2001), which means that we share a common ancestor with other primates. We share some of our decision-making processes (e.g., the framing effect) with the other animals.

One study the sought to investigate the framing effect in other primates used 40 bonobos (Pan paniscus) and chimpanzees (Pan trogladytes) (Krupenye et al., 2015). The apes were required to make choices between a positively framed option that provided a preferred food item (fruit) and a negatively framed option with a different food item (peanuts). The apes completed 5 sessions of 12 trials on separate days. Both the bonobos and the chimpanzees choose the positively framed option more than the negatively framed option demonstrating that they were susceptible to the framing effect. Furthermore, male apes were more susceptible then female apes to the framing effect.

2.png

Capuchin monkeys (Cebus appella) have also shown the framing effect in several different studies (Chen et al., 2017; Lakshminarayanan et al., 2011). In their natural environments capuchins live in complex environments, they are socially sophisticated primates whose native environment requires careful management of their scarce resources. The study by Lakshminarayanan et al., (2011) found that capuchins are able to learn how to trade tokens for food. When trading tokens they are susceptible to framing effect for positively and negatively framed choices.

The results of the capuchin, bonobo and chimpanzee studies suggest that the mechanisms that drive the framing effect is evolutionarily ancient. Some of our ‘human’ economic biases are shared by Noam and the other primates throughout the primate order. These studies highlight the importance of comparative research in understanding the origins of cognitive biases and individual differences in human decision-making. To understand the human brain and decision-making we should complement of research by looking towards our distant relatives.